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Module 6 : Summary

 

 

Module 1 Summary : Physiology

 

  • In health we obtain fluid from food, drink and as a by-product of metabolism. Fluid is lost via urine and insensible losses (sweat, lungs and faeces).
  • In health the body’s fluid homeostatic mechanisms ensure a neutral fluid balance; outputs match inputs. In disease states however this is impaired due to disturbed normal mechanisms of water loss and gain as well as additional abnormal mechanisms in which water can be gained or lost.
  • Approximately 60% of our body mass is made up of water. This body water is distributed into body compartments;  two thirds  makes up the intracellular fluid compartment and one third makes up the extracellular fluid compartment. The extracellular fluid compartment is further divided into the interstitial space and the plasma.
  • In disease states there may be global losses or gains from these fluid compartments or an abnormal distribution. Sick patients can also develop third space losses.
  • Electrolytes are lost and gained alongside fluid and therefore must also be replaced according to individual requirement. The average daily sodium requirement is 1-2mmol/kg/day and the potassium requirement is 1mmol/kg/day. In disease states these requirements may vary, thus it may be necessary to restrict electrolyte input or to supplement fluid more.

 

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